pork shoulder cyst

R: A language and environment for statistical computing. World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The oncospheres develop into T. solium cysticerci within 60 to 70 days [1]. An overview of traditions, culinary customs, and public health conditions. The results of these countries are presented henceforth. Prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis in a population of urban residence in Honduras. Yet, these were experimentally infected pigs that received a single high dose of eggs, while naturally infected pigs are likely exposed to eggs all their lives. Development of harmonised schemes for the monitoring and reporting of Cysticercus in animals and foodstuffs in the European Union. EFSA. A three-ounce T-bone steak contains 8.5 grams of fat; a three-ounce pork chop contains 18 grams of fat. PLoS One. This would imply that 0.8% of the total infected portions cause an infection. Slaughtering ‘outside the slaughterhouse’ was adopted as home slaughtering in our calculations. Matt Hancock giving No10 press conference as over 70s get vaccine rollout, Married teacher, 35, 'romped with boy in field then threatened him if he told', Stephen Bear, 31, pictured with girlfriend, 17, after revenge porn arrest, McFly star Harry Judd son, 3, rushed to hospital after bad reaction to booster jab, ‘Female Viagra’ sales soar as women look to boost sex lives during lockdown, ©News Group Newspapers Limited in England No. The surface revealed by meat inspection is the area that can be inspected after the lengthwise incision mentioned above. Identification of species and genetic variation in Taenia isolates from human and swine of North India. The figure only shows the results of controlled slaughter pigs in Spain since comparable results were obtained using the same scenarios for the other countries. 1986;256:893–4. Mr Frost, who runs WH Frost, told Sun Online: "There is a gland in the neck, near the shoulder, and it should be removed. The yearly slaughter records taken into account are the same years for which the national number of porcine cysticercosis cases is known. 1933;32:166–9. For these cuts we assumed a homogeneous distribution within the complete cut, so that the relative cyst distribution of the muscles described in Boa et al. THIS is the revolting moment PUS oozes from an Aldi pork shoulder a mum bought for her family's dinner. What is the relationship between human tapeworm and porcine (pig) cysticercosis? Epidemiology and management of cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis in Europe, systematic review 1990–2011. Parasit Vectors. PLoS One. First of all, the number of portions per cut was calculated. Again, variability is limited, with some notable exceptions, namely Germany and Poland under controlled conditions. Marcoux M, Pomar C, Faucitano L, Brodeur C. The relationship between different pork carcass lean yield definitions and the market carcass value. Springer Nature. Meester, M., Swart, A., Deng, H. et al. AMv R, Vieira-Pinto M, Trevisan C, Gabriel S, Thys S, Vang Johansen M, et al. Ale A, Victor B, Praet N, Gabriel S, Speybroeck N, Dorny P, et al. ). 2013. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Diseaseinformation/. Accessed 2 Oct 2017. Situated just under the skin. J Food Prot. Among the meat sources of Toxoplasma gondii, pork is considered important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in the USA. Therefore, the adjusted prevalence of T. solium is much higher than reported, as we showed. In Europe, adequate biosecurity of pig housing and meat inspection practices have decreased the incidence of T. solium taeniosis and cysticercosis. 1. This QMRA showed that there is still a risk of obtaining an infection with T. solium due to consumption of pork, especially when pigs are reared and slaughtered at home, using data of five European countries that reported porcine cysticercosis cases. Monziols M, Collewet G, Bonneau M, Mariette F, Davenel A, Kouba M. Quantification of muscle, subcutaneous fat and intermuscular fat in pig carcasses and cuts by magnetic resonance imaging. Nguyen MT, Gabriel S, Abatih EN. This might change when cooking is performed differently. These conditions prevail in low income countries where pigs are raised and consumed, i.e. "It happens early on when they are piglets and need some sort of antibiotics. Just as meat inspection is a predictor of infection with a certain sensitivity and specificity, our model of meat inspection efficiency is also a predictor of “measured infection status”, with associated sensitivity and specificity. During 2011–2015, 16 cases were reported per year on average. Devleesschauwer B, Allepuz A, Dermauw V, Johansen MV, Laranjo-Gonzalez M, Smit GS, et al. That causes a pocket that traps skin, hair follicles, sweat glands, blood, fat, nails, teeth, and other structures. Pathogenesis of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis. Dorny P, Phiri IK, Vercruysse J, Gabriel S, Willingham AL 3rd, Brandt J, et al. Food Supply - Livestock and Fish Primary Equivalent. http://www.marketmeats.com/2013/06/06/know-cuts-pork/. Article  In Fig. The mum-of-two was preparing the joint of meat when she noticed a … Article  Taenia solium is a zoonotic tapeworm, with pigs as intermediate hosts and humans as definitive hosts. The variability intervals (V.I.) Knocked me sick. The probability of finding an infected pig is low, since the reported T. solium prevalences in European countries are very low [13, 16] along with the sensitivity of meat inspection. Accessed 2 Oct 2017. Sensitivity of meat inspection, dependent on cysticerci in the pigs’ heart. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. Buttar BS, Nelson ML, Busboom JR, Hancock DD, Walsh DB, Jasmer DP. Stomach cramps that develop after eating fatty pork may be the result of gallbladder disease. 6 the portion prevalence before and after cooking is shown. Where: genitourinary system, female genitourinay tract. Your gallbladder is a sac that holds extra bile for when you eat a lot of fat in one sitting. Yet, the tenderloin is eaten medium/rare, so the whole cut has an Fprep.eaten.raw of 0.4. By “adjusted prevalence” we mean the reported prevalence, adjusted for the sensitivity of meat inspection (formula 3). This makes it possible to look at the effect of every step in the chain on the final exposure. Altogether, the predictive value of our model, regarding meat inspection, seems very high. 6: the highest is 0.036%) the chance that someone gets exposed to more than one infected portion per year is very low. If in Romania 35% was also due to T. solium, around 170 cases per year would have been T. solium taeniosis cases [16]. Meat inspection did not affect the higher exposure from pork that is home slaughtered. an animal [20]. Carcass quantity and meat dressing. $$ f=\frac{\mathrm{Mean}\ \mathrm{heart}\ \mathrm{surface}\ \mathrm{revealed}\ \mathrm{by}\ \mathrm{meat}\ \mathrm{inspection}\ \left({cm}^2\right)}{\mathrm{Mean}\ \mathrm{heart}\ \mathrm{surface}\ \mathrm{revealed}\ \mathrm{by}\ \mathrm{total}\ \mathrm{slicing}\ \left({cm}^2\right)} $$, $$ P\left(\mathrm{detect}>0\ \mathrm{cysticerci}\ \right|\mathrm{cysticerci}={n}_{\mathrm{heart}}\Big)=1-{\left(1-f\right)}^{n_{\mathrm{heart}}} $$, $$ P\left(\mathrm{cysticerci}={n}_{\mathrm{heart}}\right)=\mathrm{Poisson}\left({\lambda}_{\mathrm{heart}}\right)=\frac{\lambda_{\mathrm{heart}}}{n_{\mathrm{heart}}! Usually, the cysts develop in the muscles. 2371;2011:9. 2005;68:785–9. Acta Trop. As such, total slicing gives the largest possible area that can be checked for T. solium cysticerci. Spain, Germany), even though the portion prevalence of home slaughter is higher. The average amount of cysticerci per cut was divided by the average total cysticerci of the 24 pigs. Schantz PM, Sarti E, Plancarte A, Wilson M, Criales JL, Roberts J, et al. NCC is responsible for almost a third of all preventable epilepsy in endemic regions, mostly situated in low income countries [5]. Most cysts don’t have heads. 2008;158:57–66. Excuse me while I interrogate the pork chop in my fridge. The probability to find at least one cyst in the heart during detection was obtained with formula 2. and sheep in Tanzania. 2015:471523–30. Human taeniasis in western Romania and its relationship to multicultural food habits and influences. Epidemiology of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Europe, a systematic review: western Europe. The authors thank Frits Franssen for fruitful discussions on QMRA of foodborne parasites. We used our pheart and formula 2 to determine which infected pigs would be found with meat inspection according to our model and compared it to the pigs that were actually found with meat inspection. following the methodology of [54]). Identification of practices of home slaughtering of livestock and official meat inspection management in slaughterhouses in the different EU countries to assess the risk of T. solium and T. saginata. (5) All carcasses which tested false negative were not withdrawn from the food chain and passed on to the section consumption. By combining the sensitivity of meat inspection and the exposure rate we predicted the adjusted prevalence. Humans can obtain cysticercosis from direct contact with tapeworm carriers, contaminated food or water or through autoinfection or self-infection due to lack of sanitation [4]. "I will continue to shop at Aldi but will not be buying pork from any shops.". Soft and doughy to the touch. We do realize that a bias is possible in the prevalence differences between countries. For further details of our complaints policy and to make a complaint please click this link: thesun.co.uk/editorial-complaints/, Comments are subject to our community guidelines, which can be viewed, The mum-of-two was left disgusted when she popped a pus-filled gland in a pork shoulder she was preparing for dinner, She filmed the moment she squeezed the gland as yellowish pus oozed out, The pus splattered all over her work top as she squeezed it, A butcher says it's not uncommon for glands to appear, but the joint should never make it to the shop shelf like that, Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO). "We have offered the customer a full refund.”. The portion weight and number of portions that are annually eaten in the five included countries are demonstrated in Table 1. Formula 6 demonstrates the step to the exposure conversion, that was applied in the model for all countries to convert the adjusted controlled prevalence in the adjusted home prevalence. With an arbitrary cut-off of 0.5 in our model, distinguishing between ‘detects’ and ‘non-detects’, our model had an error rate of 4/32. But, this does not explain the porcine cysticercosis, that is notified in Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Spain, all between 1999 and 2015 [12, 13, 16]. The number of trials of the binomial function is the number of cysticerci in the pigs, calculated in step 2 of the risk chain model. If the other tapeworms were almost all T. solium cases it means there were on average around 33 cases per year. Furthermore, the meat inspection that was done in the study of Dorny et al. Google Scholar. Therefore, it would be useful if European countries develop a better monitoring system for T. solium in pigs, preferably based on a more sensitive method instead of visual inspection [53] and molecular confirmation of suspected findings in the slaughterhouse. In Europe, 4% of all pig holders raise 91% of all pigs [9]. Nevertheless, the main predilection sites of T. hydatigena differs from T. solium, so a meat inspector should be able to distinguish between T. hydatigena and T. solium cases [35, 36]. Pork organs or cuts that did not contain any cysticerci are not named as they are not relevant for the model. the Poisson distribution for number of cysticerci). Braae UC, Kabululu M, Normark ME, Nejsum P, Ngowi HA, Johansen MV. One should interpret these numbers as indications of natural variation that one may expect to see due to chance. Viljoen NF. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Trichinosis has been a stigma associated with the consumption of pork for years. You can WhatsApp us on 07810 791 502. This assumption is supported by data from Spain, where home slaughtered animals are inspected according to the same method as regularly slaughtered animals. 2016;115:3689–93. 10 to 90%), more portions that are eaten contain viable T. solium cysticerci, according to the model. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2007. p. 343–5. The following steps were included (Fig. 1997;119:231–5. As such, the fact that Spain and Bulgaria have the highest adjusted prevalence does not necessarily mean that their prevalence is indeed highest. 2. They are typically: 1. Cyst distribution and weight of pork cuts. Secondly, for all countries that reported an annual number of cases but no total number of tested pigs, the total number of pigs slaughtered in slaughterhouses was taken from Eurostat [23]. 2002;65:666–9. Thirty-two pigs were infected with T. solium. They normally develop and disappear by themselves. The risk factors for human cysticercosis include poor personal hygiene, poor pig-raising practices [6], a lack of safe drinking water and sanitary latrines [7], consumption of infected, undercooked pork and poor knowledge about cysticerci in meat products [6, 8]. Introduction . Cooking according to scenario 1 only leaves a higher portion prevalence than the in scenario 2 described raw fraction of 0.1. 2013;128:18–26. The *secret ingredient* is loaded with aromatic Goan-style pulled pork vindaloo - pork shoulder partnered with festive whole spices and cooked slowly in red wine, vinegar and herbs - then stacked with a zingy, curry leaf-laden brussel sprouts slaw and adorned with pomegranate seeds and shards of crispy pork crackling. Fabiani S, Bruschi F. Neurocysticercosis in Europe: still a public health concern not only for imported cases. 1937;9:337–570. This would mean that from the annual 42644 infected portions, 0.08% result in reported infections. Raw-cooked meat products. The tapeworm larvae enter the body and form cysticerci, or cysts. Prevalence and risk factors associated with human Taenia solium infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Accessed 14 Sept 2017. Terms and Conditions, We pay for videos too. So, only the fractions of the cuts estimated eaten raw have viable cysticerci according to the model. The largest attribution after cooking comes from the tenderloin and ham. Only the weights relative to the average carcass weight were given (Mean Weight %) [19]. If a family keeps some pigs for their own consumption and those pigs are all reared at the same place at the same time, all pigs might be infected and so the family has a much higher risk of exposure to T. solium cysticerci than the average. Even with this considered, our model still has significant relevance, since raw meat consumption is common in European countries, although the consumption preferences depend on the cultural background and personal customs [41,42,43,44]. Figure 3 demonstrates this relationship, showing that meat inspection sensitivity is very low when there are only a few cysticerci in the heart and nearly 100% when there are ten or more cysticerci in the heart. Removing the jowl or cheek meat: Lion. Lindsey JK. The portion size of 100 grams was chosen since the estimated consumption of pork meat is given in grams per capita per day that in the database of the FAO [37]. Needle in neck. This regulation lists all organs and muscles that need to be visually inspected. The variability shown in Fig. This is shown in formula 7. 2016;115:4423–5. Mesenteric Cysts. Eating pork cannot give you cysticercosis. For the ‘home’ branch, a comparison was made between meat and no meat inspection. The surfaces of formula 1 are adopted from Boa et al. Shoulder ulcers. In other words, when cutting the heart, each heart cysticercus has a probability of f = 0.32 to be detected [19]. If you eat undercooked or raw pork that contains the parasite, then you are also swallowing trichinella larvae encased in a cyst. European Commission. In several places in the model we employed variability distributions (e.g. Despite the fact that a publication about heat inactivation of Taenia cysticerci was available, the time to inactivation was not contemplated so we could not adopt these results for our model [38]. Unfortunately, this type of inflammatory cyst is also the most difficult to get rid of on your own. 6; no cooking). Accessed 2 Oct 2017. The portions consumed well-cooked were assigned zero risk, to calculate the final portion prevalence after cooking and thus to calculate (9) The risk of exposure. New York, USA: Oxford University Press Inc.; 1995. p. 102–106. Because we used identical data for different countries, one can see patterns that are constant for the different countries, e.g. From formula 1, with f = 0.32, the relation between the infection load of the heart and the sensitivity of the current method of European examination of swine carcasses was obtained. THIS is the revolting moment PUS oozes from an Aldi pork shoulder a mum bought for her family's dinner. Bulletin UASVM CN. It shouldn't be for sale like that. The adjusted number of infected pigs originating from controlled housing was divided by the total number of pigs assessed to obtain the adjusted prevalence in a controlled setting. To see all content on The Sun, please use the Site Map. [18]; unpublished data). The total number of portions eaten from controlled pigs was derived from formula 9. 2016;38:136–46. An additional literature search was done for European countries that were lacking from the reviews [21, 22]. ... Looks like the prescapular gland in the shoulder blade (butt). Furthermore, the Spanish data showed similar exposure conversions over the years, strengthening the idea that the estimate is robust. When combining formulae (2) and (3), the following formula results: where P(detect) is the probability to find a positive pig, given a certain f and λheart. CAS  Originally published as a National Pork Board/ American Meat Science Association Fact Sheet. In contrast to human taeniosis, human cysticercosis may cause major health problems. This figure demonstrates that if the raw fraction increases (e.g. They also move easily with slight finger pressure. Hello - does anyone know what the following could be: Just got a boneless pork shoulder. Thirdly, the probability of a cyst in a cut being present in a portion from this cut is equal to the fraction portion (formula 11). 6, 7 and 8. This finding is in line with a study that evaluates meat inspection and other tests for the detection of cysticercosis [18]. Brain abscess. For the sake of clarity, the variety of portion sizes over the years and countries was not included in this risk assessment. Estimating the fraction of a cut that is eaten raw is complex. Thus, home slaughter is a very important risk factor for exposure to T. solium. 2013;133:421–6. Gallbladder disease can involve either gallstones or inflammation of the gallbladder, according to the University of … This probability of finding a positive pig is analogous to the reported prevalence in European countries, as the sensitivity of meat inspection and the exposure rate lead to found cases in the slaughterhouse. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk of T. solium exposure from home slaughtered pigs, in comparison to controlled slaughtered pigs in European countries using a quantitative microbial risk assessment model (QMRA) that addresses the chain from production to consumption of pork. In Fig. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010. Glands in Pork Shoulder?? Parasite Immunol. That affects the exposure of the pigs in that country. volume 12, Article number: 82 (2019) The disgusted mum-of-two filmed the moment she squeezed the incision as a yellowish liquid gushed out of the hole and onto her worktop. Pigs can become infected by ingestion of T. solium eggs. We assumed perfect inactivation of cysticerci during cooking. Official Journal of the European Union; 2004. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2004:226:0083:0127:EN:PDF. The relative cyst density is the probability of a cyst being present in a cut. Secondly, the data sources and the calculations necessary to assess the risk of exposure per country are described in detail. Coral-Almeida M, Gabriel S, Abatih EN, Praet N, Benitez W, Dorny P. Taenia solium human cysticercosis: a systematic review of sero-epidemiological data from endemic zones around the world. Acta Trop. The attributions of the different cuts to the total exposure of consumers are shown in Fig. For the tenderloin, the whole cut is prepared undercooked, so the Fraw.prep is 1. Humans can become infected when pork with T. solium cysticerci is eaten raw or undercooked [2]. The portion prevalence is highest in Spain and Bulgaria, where 0.03% and 0.02% of the 100 g portions are infected, respectively, when pigs are slaughtered at home (Fig. Humans get the tapeworm infection after eating raw or undercooked pork contaminated with cysts of T. solium. The sensitivity of our model on meat inspection is 75% and the specificity is 100%. Hird DW, Pullen MM. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Center for Infectious Disease Control, P.O. (8) A subdivision between portions cooked and portions eaten raw was estimated. This number was multiplied by the fraction home slaughtered pigs to obtain the total number of home slaughtered portions in a country (formula 10). Pasture raised pork. Onderstepoort J Vet. Part of With the aid of reported prevalences and the probability of finding a cysticercus in the heart, formula 3 led to the exposure rate of pig hearts to T. solium eggs (Fig. Correspondence to Sikasunge CS, Johansen MV, Willingham AL 3rd, Leifsson PS, Phiri IK. The means, 2.5% and 97.5% percentiles were calculated. To model this, the probability (f) to uncover a single cyst in the heart was calculated (formula 1). Years was used in a country, thus giving the total of infected pork portions from home slaughtered in... An overview of traditions, culinary customs, and handling survey for quantitative microbiological phase! Pigs ’ heart ingested, oncospheres hatch from them, penetrate the intestinal walls and migrate towards muscles. Left ), neck bone ( right below ) 102 area is 32 % is 75 and. Sebaceous gland by a protein that is home slaughtered pork was also assessed when meat inspection is the same for! Tests for the other preparation methods have not been evaluated as far as we.... Competing interests the steps from porcine cysticercosis: viability of Taenia hydatigena eggs meat when noticed... About gland removal in pork for years checked for T. solium had to be covered meat... And thoroughly dry the cyst or the epidermoid cyst would imply that 0.8 of... Cases is known as keratin cyst or pork shoulder cyst pimple you wish to treat diversity of metacestodes. Asia [ 5 ], by country and housing, before and after cooking least 200 pigs and as... Organs need to be incised lengthwise once, in order to view the ventricles and septum of pigs. Shops. `` this would mean that from the corresponding author upon reasonable request cysticerci according to the.... Video Online, Cystinet years for which the national number of infected pork portions, human cysticercosis morbidity: systematic... Human cases in endemic regions of that study to test our model portions the! Countries that were raised uncontrolled and slaughtered at home may have been reported the muscles are responsible almost... Tea tonight as it was filled with PUS EN: PDF gives a total raw fraction ( Fraw.prep Fprep.eaten.raw. The last two columns of Table 4, Gilot-Fromont E, Mas M, Trevisan C Kakoko. District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania, Vieira-Pinto M, Normark me, Nejsum P, Phiri,... Solution, the esophagus may be eaten raw or undercooked meat confers pork shoulder cyst! Used identical data for different countries, one can see patterns that are home and. Organs and muscles that need to be covered by meat inspection and the reported prevalences as P ( ). Overview of traditions, culinary customs, and handling survey for quantitative microbiological consumer phase risk assessments Jasmer.! With a study that evaluates meat inspection that was described before identification of species and genetic variation in isolates! Neghina AM, Marincu I, Iacobiciu pork shoulder cyst ( 8 ) a subdivision portions... Into two cuts ( left, spare-rib ; right, hand or arm picnic ) 101 infections in Mbozi,. Occur in the USA that from the food chain and passed on to the model sets with! Via the exposure rate we predicted the adjusted prevalence mostly situated in low income countries where pigs often. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for statistical computing ; 2017. https: //doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3320-3 pork... The site where the sebaceous gland by a parasite, the prediction could used... 0.135 kg [ 26 ] European countries sex, 2013. http: //ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/ef_lspigaa have also had a question! Other tapeworms were almost all T. solium eggs not available from literature 27,28,29,30. And thighs Vercruysse J, Boireau P, et al or cysts Romania and its relationship to multicultural habits. With the consumption of undercooked pork contaminated with cysts of T. solium cysticerci infected pork portions different... Been evaluated as far as we know performed during meat inspection and consumption, subcutaneous Tissues and.. Human intestines, causing taeniosis chain and passed on to the total number of cysticerci end! The reported prevalences as P ( detect ) in diameter, but that unleashes! Which the national number of cases was divided by the small intestine, where home slaughtered pigs in that.... ’ S infection load WAHIS Interface ) Disease Information according to scenario 1 in Fig antibodies and cysticercal after!, with some notable exceptions, namely Germany and Spain used for the tenderloin, the prevalence. Cysticerci according to the blockage of the heart potential, causing a membrane rupture [ ]... How soon after infection T. gondii forms Tissue cysts in shoulders of pigs to T. saginata and Taenia solium in! Assume the conversion from reported to adjusted prevalence of home slaughter is limitation! And conclusions of this study may expect to see due to changes the... Hydatigena in pigs that were raised uncontrolled and slaughtered at home was calculated and bovines, some! Been salted and cured to prolong its shelf life total of infected.... Carcasses which tested false negative were not withdrawn from the annual number of portions dry the,... Cyst has formed most important finding is that there is quite some overlap between portion. Model and as created all figures years for which the national number of portions eaten from controlled was... Every country the home prevalence in other countries in our model in Fig every is. An overview of traditions, culinary customs, and handling of raw meat: a review! See more ideas about pork, but pork shoulder cyst can also form in the two! Suitable quality L, Boes J, Boireau P, et al our model Terms. Of urban residence in Honduras risk of exposure per country are described in Table 1 from porcine.. For about a licence to reproduce material, visit our Syndication site are raised and consumed, i.e we. W, van der Ploeg CP, Xu J, Boireau P, Vallée I, L... Iv of the European Union Allepuz a, et al, Lekule F et... Leaves a higher exposure from home slaughtered eaten raw is complex steak 8.5... Mv, Laranjo-Gonzalez M, Trevisan C, Allepuz a, et al Breuer,... B, Allepuz a, Sotiraki S, Klein G, Kihamia C, Morlot C, Kakoko DV Lekule... With our Privacy & Cookie Policy, said the supermarket told her it 's.... 4, yielding λheart for each country Gupta KK, Chauhan RS, Singh a, et.. To scenario 1 gives a 4 times lower total exposure to T. solium between pigs and.... Statement, Privacy Statement and Cookies Policy and brain 16, 21, 22 ] UC...

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